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SPECIAL ISSUE OF JOURNAL OF GLOBAL ETHICS, Volume 17, Issue 2 (2021), pages 115-278
LEBRET AND THE PROJECTS OF ÉCONOMIE HUMAINE, INTEGRAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT ETHICS
Editors: Des Gasper, Lori Keleher
The work of the French socio-economist and philosopher L.-J. Lebret and his associates is too little known in English-language circles. A new special issue of the Journal of Global Ethics tries to fill at least part of this gap. Authors from Brazil, Costa Rica, Cote D’Ivoire, France, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, and the USA describe and assess various aspects of the extensive output of Lebret and his school and its lines of influence both inside and far beyond Catholic circles. The special issue is co-edited by Des Gasper, (International Institute of Social Studies (The Hague), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands), and Lori Keleher (New Mexico State University, USA).
The journal issue can be accessed via https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rjge20/17/2?nav=tocList, which gives the list of contents, links to all the articles, and information about the journal and how to buy articles. However, the list of contents is open-access, as are three articles, including the opening overview paper.
— Past announcements —
Below are notifications of conferences and calls for papers other than IDEA events that may be of interest to IDEA members.
Human Development and Capability Association 2021 Webinar Series: Multidimensional Well-Being: Concepts, Measurement, & Application
April – July 2021
The webinar series brings together and into conversation established scholars, junior researchers, and practitioners working to conceptualise, measure, and improve multidimensional well-being. It addresses and allows for discussion regarding both long-standing and contemporary issues regarding the conceptualization and measurement of well-being, with a special focus on applications related to the Capability Approach.
General themes running through the series include concepts of well-being, philosophies of well-being measurement, methodological issues including formal procedures for multidimensional measurement, the role of participation and deliberation, empirical applications and challenges, policy uses and implications, and current research frontiers.
The series is hosted by a group of junior HDCA scholars and aims at providing a forum for exchanges and discussions between junior and senior researchers and practitioners, and in combining their competencies. All are welcome.
For the full webinar schedule, updates, and to register, please visit our website: http://2021webinarseries.com/.
Upcoming Webinar Series Themes
1. Democratising Measurement: A Case Study from Well-Being Public Policy
Anna Alexandrova & Mark Fabian
6th April, Tuesday, 11am – 12.30pm BST (GMT +1)
2. Using the Capability Approach to Conceptualise Well-Being
19th April, Monday, 18.30 – 20.00 BST (GMT +1) / (19.30 – 21.00 CEST/GMT +2)
3. Methodological Options and Challenges for Measuring Multidimensional Well-Being*
4. Participatory Approaches to Well-Being Measurement*
5. The Development and Application of Multidimensional Well-being Measures*
6. Multidimensional Well-Being Measures as Policy-Instruments*
7. Limitations and Frontiers: Concepts, Measures, and Applications*
* Presenter and event details TBC.
Questions/Suggestions? Contact the organizing committee: firstname.lastname@example.org
Call for Papers: Journal of Global Ethics Special Issue
Louis Joseph Lebret and the development of peoples: on his work and legacy
Guest Editors Des Gasper (International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam) Lori Keleher (Department of Philosophy, New Mexico State University)
Submission of abstracts (500 words): September 30, 2019. (Prospective authors are welcome to discuss with the guest editors in the period leading up to this deadline.)
Submission of full draft papers (typically 6,000 – 8,000 words): May 1, 2020
Expected publication: Spring 2021
Direct enquiries and submissions to: Des Gasper (email@example.com) and Lori Keleher (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Louis Joseph Lebret (1897-1966) was arguably the founder of ‘development ethics’ as a self-declared body of research, public conversation and activism. A French Dominican priest, economist, development planner and philosopher, for many years engaged with French fishing communities, industrial worker communities, and urban planning programs, he founded the movement Economie et Humanisme in 1941. From the late 1940s he extended his attention from France to Latin America, and later to Africa and Asia. He founded a number of other institutes and organizations and published numerous books in French of which several were translated into English, Spanish and Portuguese. His writings ranged from conspectuses of global trajectory, through theorizing of ‘integral human development’, to practical development plans and textbooks of methods. Denis Goulet (1931-2006), the American philosopher-social planner who brought a largely similar perspective into English language literature, was Lebret’s pupil and protege. Finally, Lebret was a key figure behind the progressive social doctrines that were advanced during the Second Vatican Council of the Roman Catholic Church (1962-65), including in Gaudium et spes (the pastoral constitution for the Church). Lebret was the principal investigator of Paul VI’s encyclical Populorum Progressio, or ‘the development of peoples,’ (1967), which oriented subsequent generations of Catholic development work.
Lebret is relatively well known still in France, as he had many associates and pupils. There are active Lebret centers and programs throughout the world including a Lebret institute (Centre international Développement et Civilisations – Lebret-Irfed) in Paris and the Lebret program at the Centro Dominico de Investigación (the Dominican Center for Research) in Costa Rica. Several books about him and his work were published soon after his death and again around the centenary of his birth, plus books and papers in recent years about his influence in Latin America, in Senegal, in Catholic social thought, and in urban community development. Yet, he appears too little known in English-language development ethics, other than via an essay by Goulet (1974, reprinted in his 2006 book of selected papers).
This special issue of the Journal of Global Ethics seeks to bring together the work of researchers and practitioners from diverse backgrounds on the large body of work of Lebret and his closest associates and its degree of continuing influence and relevance within development practice and development ethics.
We invite proposals of up to 500 words (plus references) on Lebret’s written and/or activist practitioner work and its legacy. Topics may include, but are not restricted to the following:
- Lebret and the field of development ethics
- Lebret and the field of global ethics
- Lebret and integral human development
- Lebret, human needs and human psychology
- Lebret and participatory development
- Lebret and human economy
- Lebret and workers’ movements
- Lebret and urban development
- Lebret and sustainable development
- Lebret and Marxism
- Lebret and Jacques Maritain
- Lebret and liberation theology
- Lebret and Denis Goulet
- Lebret and Catholic social thought and practice, including in relation to Pope Francis (and the Francesco economy movement), the common good, Catholic anthropology, and/or the practices of Caritas, Catholic Relief Services, etc.
- Lebret in Latin America / Africa / Asia / Europe.
Workshop on Global Justice in and Through Education, November 29-30, 2018, American University of Paris (AUP), France.
Contemporary political philosophers and philosophers of education tend to focus on theorizing the interconnections between the concepts of education and justice at the level of the nation-state. The workshop explores the implications of shifting this level of analysis from the national to the global level. It considers how to conceive of global educational justice and examines the role of education in fighting global injustices. In particular, it asks which human rights to education, if any, can be justified on the basis of conceptions of global justice and which agents are morally responsible for realizing such rights. Invited speakers include: Harry Brighouse (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alejandra Boni (Universitat Politècnica de Valencia), Johannes Drerup (Universität Koblenz-Landau), Juan Espíndola (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, Mexico City), Jennifer Morton (City College of New York) and Danielle Zwarthoed (Université catholique de Louvain).
The workshop is organized by Professor Julian Culp (AUP) on behalf of the Global Justice Network in cooperation with the AUP. Funding is provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG). For more information, please visit: https://www.theglobaljusticenetwork.org/index.php/gjn/announcement/view/36.
Third Cambridge Capabilities Conference: Deadline for abstracts 23 April.
“ON CAPABILITY INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT”
CALL FOR PAPERS
The focus of our third conference will be on the elaboration and use of capability indicators and other human development and sustainability indicators. We have the privilege of having Professor Mozaffar Qizilbash to be the key-note speaker of the third CCC. Professor Qizilbash is no stranger to scholars familiar with the capability approach. His contributions to both philosophical and measurement issues, the challenges of designing surveys to capture indicators of dimensions of freedoms are well-known.
Journal of Global Ethics CFP Deadline: June 30th, 2018
Open call for papers: Global Justice for Children
Abstracts due June 2018.
Guest Editors: Gottfried Schweiger & Johannes Drerup
Journal of Global Ethics CFP Deadline: January 30, 2018
Open call for proposals: Indian Global Ethics Initiative — Journal of Global Ethics Special Issue
Guest Editors: Shashi Motilal and Jay Drydyk
Indian voices have been underrepresented in recent discussions of global ethics. To remedy this, the Journal of Global Ethics will devote a Special Issue to contributions by or about Indian researchers. The co-editors, Prof. Shashi Motilal (Delhi University) and Prof. Jay Drydyk (Carleton University, Canada) will work with Indian researchers to develop articles on eight topics in global ethics, to be published in the Journal of Global Ethics or in other international journals.
In addition to researchers who already publish on topics of global ethics, proposals are invited from social science and policy researchers who wish to develop critical ethical perspectives that may be implicit in their work. Proposals are also encouraged from those interested in taking the step from local to global perspective.
Proposals of up to 500 words, plus reference list, are invited on any of the following topic areas within global ethics:
- Theoretical approaches and problems
- Conflict, war, terrorism
- Poverty and development
- Transnational aspects of social inequalities (e.g., race, gender, caste, ethnicity, indigenous and cultural survival)
- Economic relations (including trade and investment) and institutions
- Bioethics and health justice
- Environmental and climate ethics
- Population and migration
Proposals should specify: (a) the authors’ research question; (b) literature in which this question is relevant; (c) the authors’ preferred strategy for answering this question; and (d) some lines of argumentation or types of evidence that will be used.
Contributions should be written either by Indian citizens or NRIs (as lead or sole authors), or about Indian thinkers or schools of thought. Normative argumentation in ethics, philosophy, or political theory, in the context of issues relevant to India, is highly desirable; however, the co-editors will assist authors with developing such argumentation in proposals where it is not yet fully explicit.
Proposals and inquiries should be sent as soon as possible, on or before January 30, 2018, to Prof. Shashi Motilal at (email@example.com).
Human Development and Capabilities Association: August 30 – Sept. 1, 2018: Buenos Aires, Argentina (CFP deadline (anticipated): March 1, 2018 or later)
IDEA maintains customary connections with several interest groups within HDCA: Ethics and development, Foundational issues, and Human rights. Those who may wish to discuss proposals for thematic sessions to these groups should contact the group coordinators asap — some have provisional deadlines for planning of today, March 8. (see https://hd-ca.org/thematic-groups)
European Center for Sustainable Development ICSD 2017: 5th International Conference on Sustainable Development,
6 – 7 September 2017 Rome, Italy (Deadline 10 June, 2017)
Human Development and Capabilities Association: September 6-8, 2017: Cape Town, South Africa (Deadline March 17, 2017)
Cambridge Capability Conference – 2017 CCC, 19-21 June, Cambridge, UK
Hosted by the Centre of Development Studies, University of Cambridge, this year, we wish to celebrate the launch of Professor Amartya Sen’s extended edition of ‘Collective Choice and Social Welfare’, inviting Professor Wulf Gaertner, one of the most distinguished Social Choice scholars in the world, to be the key-note speaker of the conference. Preference will be given to full papers and to papers exploring the link between Social Choice and the Capability Approach. However, all papers relevant to the Capability Approach field are welcome. We hope to publish a book with the best 2017 CCC papers. Deadline: 17 April. More information please email Dr Flavio Comim: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ethics and Global Poverty: New Directions in Research, June 5-6th, 2017
Buchanan D-324, UBC campus, Vancouver BC
Anthony Musonda, University of Zambia
The Coming of Age of Public Service Ethics in the face of Donor-driven Legal and Public Sector Reforms: The Case of Zambia
Monique Deveaux, University of Guelph
Movements versus markets: what, if anything, is special about the organisations and movements of the poor?
Jay Drydyk, Carleton University
Beyond Nussbaum’s Capability Approach
Christine Koggel, Carleton University
Agency, Empowerment, and Gender Inequalities
Cindy Holder, University of Victoria
Poverty, Asylum and Exclusion: Reframing Questions about Refugees
Scott Anderson & Sylvia Berryman, University of British Columbia
Panel: Coercion & Domination in International Aid
Lisa Fuller, Merrimack College
Why Humanitarian Aid is Not a Gift
New Directions for Research in Ethics and Global Poverty
Admission is free and open to all. Please inform the organizer at email@example.com if you are attending and wish to be including in arrangements for lunch during the conference.
Manchester Centre for Political Theory (MANCEPT) Workshops, University of Manchester:
Calls for abstracts with forthcoming deadlines for several workshops include: Theories of public reason; Political theory; Epistemic Perspectives on Democracy and the Market; Politics of Higher Education; Collective moral agency and global justice; Personal responsibility in egalitarianism (Call for abstract deadlines May 11-June 1, for events fall 2016). See http://philevents.org/search/index?keywords=mancept&search=true
Human Development and Capabilities Association Conference, August 31- Sept. 3, Tokyo
http://hd-ca.org/conferences/2016-hdca-conference-tokyo-japan. In addition to a program well-supported by development ethics presentations generally, a pre-conference workshop early on August 31 will focus upon the work of IDEA board member Gillian Brock, entitled Global justice, the capability approach, and social policy.
Registration is requested, see http://hd-ca.org/conferences/2016-hdca-conference-tokyo-japan#anchor6.
Global Justice Network Workshop, June 22, 2016
The Global Justice Network presents its workshop on ethical aspects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) and the problem of sovereignty to the European University Institute, in San Domenico, Fiesole (Florence). The workshop will be hosted within the framework of the Max Weber Programme. The workshop date remains June 22, 2016. Confirmed speakers are Saskia Sassen (Columbia and LSE), Ayelet Banai (Haifa University), Clara Brandi (German Development Institute), Peter Dietsch (University of Montreal), Mathias Risse (Harvard Kennedy School), and Gabriel Siles-Brügge (University of Manchester). For interest of participation and any inquires, please feel free to contact Julian Culp (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Utrecht Development Ethics Workshop June 20-21, 2016
The Ethics Institute of Utrecht University will organize a two-day workshop on ‘new challenges and contemporary issues in development ethics’. We are happy to present a series of distinguished speakers within development ethics, including Ingrid Robeyns (Utrecht University) and Des Gasper (ISS).
The workshop will take place on June 20-21 in the A.W. De Grootkamer (Trans 8, room 0.19) in Utrecht. Participation will be free of charge and coffee/tea and lunch are provided. Details of the program will follow soon.
For interest of participation and any inquires, please feel free to contact Morten Fibieger Byskov (email@example.com). Please note that seating for this workshop is very limited and registration is therefore required.
Conference and summer school on Ethical Issues in Randomized Trials in Development Economics and Health Policy: An opportunity for graduate students and young scholars
The 2016 Brocher Summer Academy in Population-Level Bioethics is open for applications. This year’s session, on the ethics of randomized trials in development economics and health policy, will take place in the beautiful Brocher Villa on Lake Geneva in Switzerland, between 20-24 June 2016. We would be grateful to you for referring suitable candidates. The deadline for applications is March 11, 2016.
This Summer Academy brings together leading experts in ethics, economics and the health sciences to discuss an important ethical issue with immediate implications for assessing the impact of our interventions for economic development and health systems design. The rapid acceptance of randomized trials as a source of evidence in development economics and health policy has been accompanied by debates over their evidentiary value and, thus far less openly, their ethics. The ethical issues they raise have played a role – often unacknowledged – in decisions on whether and how they should be carried out. For example, Prof. Jeff Sachs replied to critics who faulted his “Millennium Villages” project for lacking controls that he had been advised that this would have been unethical. As randomized trials in development economics and health policy research increase in prominence, ethical questions should be sorted out, sooner rather than later—before ethical abuses, or unnecessary regulation, take hold.
Participants will have a unique opportunity to interact closely with our distinguished speakers, such as this year’s Nobel Prize winner in Economics Angus Deaton, Econometrics text book author Josh Angrist, President of the World Medical Association Michael Marmot, World Bank economist Adam Wagstaff, and leading philosophers including Nancy Cartwright.
We would very much appreciate if this information were circulated to excellent potential participants, from related academic disciplines and areas of practice. Candidates from developing countries are especially welcome. Some leaders of population-level bioethics started their careers in previous sessions of the Summer Academy. Please be sure to email Anders Huitfeldt <firstname.lastname@example.org> their names: your endorsement will ensure that their applications receive close attention. If you yourself might be interested in taking part, please let us know, as we have in the past been able to accommodate a number of respected peers who are not themselves speakers on the program.
More information is available on the Brocher Foundation’s website at www.brocher.ch/en/events/203/brocher-summer-academy-in-population-level-bioethics-ethical-design-of-randomized-studies-in-developing-countries. Note in particular the deadline for applications: March 11, 2016.
Call for Papers: Journal of Global Ethics Special Article Section
Refugee Crisis: The Borders of Human Mobility
Guest editors: Melina Duarte, Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen,
Serena Parekh and Annamari Vitikainen
Full details: http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=specialIssues&journalCode=rjge
Submission of abstracts: asap
Submission of papers: April 21st 2016
Direct enquiries and submissions to: JGErefugees@list.uit.no
Summer School: Indigenous Rights and Legal Pluralism
From: Tue, 30 Jun 2015 To: Mon, 20 Jul 2015
Where: Lima and Madre de Dios, Peru (Amazon)
If any questions, please contact Piero Fioralisso: email@example.com
NEH Institute: Development Ethics and Global Justice: Gender, Economics, and Environment
June 22 – July 15, 2015, Michigan State University
A four week United States National Endowment for the Humanities Institute for College and University Teachers, June 22 – July 17, 2015, Michigan State University
“Development Ethics and Global Justice: Gender, Economics and Environment” is a four-week National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, to be held Monday, June 22 to Friday, July 17 2015 on the campus of Michigan State University. It follows upon a similar successful 2013 NEH Institute, “Development Ethics: Questions, Challenges and Responsibilities.” The 2015 Institute will concern matters of global justice with an eye to gender disparity, distributive justice and individual economic opportunity, and our common environmental future. Feminist theory and care ethics, climate change, and women’s economic development in South Asia are particular strengths among guest speakers at the Institute. The post-2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals will provide a focus for our consideration of the ethics and implications of policy concerning human and social development.
NEH Summer Institutes provide intensive collaborative study of texts, topics, and ideas central to undergraduate teaching in the humanities. Summer Institutes aim to prepare NEH Summer Scholars to return to their classrooms with deeper knowledge of current scholarship in key fields of the humanities. Institute co-directors Fred Gifford (Michigan State University) and Eric Palmer (Allegheny College) will gather twenty-five U.S. faculty members at Michigan State University to review the first generation of scholarship and frame the discussion for the next generation. They will work with the guidance of seven visiting speakers and three faculty experts at Michigan State University.
NEH Faculty: Bina Agarwal, Alison Jaggar, Naila Kabeer, Serene Khader, Christine Koggel, Henry Shue, Asunción Lera St. Clair
Contributing MSU faculty: Stephen Esquith, Paul Thompson, Kyle Whyte
Twenty-five NEH Summer Scholars will participate for the four weeks of the Institute and will pursue individual work connected to the Institute’s subject matter. Scholars receive a $3300 stipend to defray expenses. Applications are encouraged from U.S.-chartered University and College faculty, part-time faculty, independent scholars, and others. Applications are also encouraged from graduate students, three of whom are expected among the participating group of NEH scholars. See the webpage for eligibility requirements. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com for further information. Application deadline: March 2, 2015.
More information: http://ethicsanddevelopment.org
NEH Institute: Development Ethics: Questions, Challenges and Responsibilities
July 22-August 16, 2013, Michigan State University
Under the guidance of distinguished scholars, NEH Summer Institutes provide intensive collaborative study of texts, topics, and ideas central to undergraduate teaching in the humanities. NEH Summer Institutes aim to prepare NEH Summer Scholars to return to their classrooms with a deeper knowledge of current scholarship in key fields of the humanities. “Development Ethics: Questions, Challenges and Responsibilities,” concerns new directions in development ethics, a young sub-field of ethics and social and political philosophy that has grown to maturity over the past thirty years, as philosophers have noted evident weaknesses in global aid and development efforts of the mid and late 20th century.
Co-directors Fred Gifford (Michigan State University) and Eric Palmer (Allegheny College) will gather twenty-five U.S. faculty members at Michigan State University to review the first generation of scholarship and frame the discussion for the next generation. They will work with the guidance of eight visiting speakers, and four more experts resident at Michigan State University. Detailed information on this seminar will be posted by January 2013.
NEH Faculty (2013): Frances Stewart, David Crocker, Paul Thompson (MSU), Leela Fernandes, Sandra Harding, Richard Peterson (MSU), Bronwyn Leebaw, Jay Drydyk, Stephen Esquith (MSU), Des Gasper, Nigel Dower, Kyle Whyte (MSU)
Congratulations to Stacy Kosko and Shalini Iyengar, the winners of the Denis Goulet Memorial Prize for 2011.
Denis Goulet Memorial Prize
Second Round 2011; Third round to be announced (anticipated for 2016)
In 2005 the Board of the International Development Ethics Association first considered the idea of a Prize called the Denis Goulet Prize to honour the work of Denis Goulet, who can be regarded as the spiritual father of the International Development Ethics Association and indeed the newly emerging discipline of development ethics. Tragically since then he has died, after a long battle with cancer, on December 27th 2006. We then renamed the Prize the Denis Goulet Memorial Prize.
Denis Goulet had been associated with the International Development Ethics Association ever since its inception in Costa Rica in 1987. He was an inspiration to many IDEA members, in that his writing promoted a serious concern for ethical and normative issues in development over a period when mainstream thinking had no interest in this approach.
This Prize will be offered from time to time, usually in the period following an IDEA international conference, which is open to any student in undergraduate and graduate programs, whether or not they have attended a recent international conference. (But this does not apply to someone who is in a professional position but also doing a degree at a later stage in their career, or to someone already involved in a Post Doc position.) We particularly want students from economically poorer countries to take part in this, and hope that academics who hear about this Prize will encourage their students to enter.
The winners of the prize will have the recognition by IDEA of the standing of his or her essay in the eyes of the panel of IDEA judges, and his or her essay will be posted on the IDEA website. Whilst we cannot guarantee that it would be accepted in an academic journal, the expectation of the judges in awarding the Prize would be that the paper would be of an acceptable standard, and a note to the effect that that the paper won the IDEA Denis Goulet Prize in Development Ethics in 2007 (or whatever later year it is) may be added to it. In addition IDEA will offer free registration at the next international conference which the student can attend, along with a modest honorarium.
Papers are invited, following the Ninth International Conference of the International Development Ethics Association at Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, U.S., June 9-11, 2011.
Submissions by postgraduates or undergraduates of papers given at the conference are welcome but equally papers from students not attending the conference or giving papers at it are welcome.
Two Prizes are being offered this time: one for the leading essay from students from the (political) ‘South’ and one from a student from the ‘North’, in order to reflect significant differences of educational background and opportunity. (This should be interpreted in the spirit intended: e.g. someone from the ‘South’ educated in Northern schools and universities or ones of comparable standing should treat himself or herself as from the North.)
Length, format etc.:
Papers should be submitted in the form of journal articles, fully referenced according to the Harvard method, between 4000-5000 words, double spaced, with 1” plus margins in A4 or letter size paper format (but capable of being sent as an email attachment in Word).
Just as Denis Goulet recognised that development ethics is both about theory and practice, a paper can cover either broad ethical issues about development in general, or it can also focus on particular cases, such as particular development projects or the policies of a particular country. It is NOT necessary that the paper should focus on or even mention the works of Denis Goulet, but familiarity with his writing and approach may be an advantage.
30th September, 2011. Please submit, as electronic attachments, to Jay Drydyk (firstname.lastname@example.org), the receiver of the entries. Each candidate should submit two files, one with the body of the text including the title with no information on it to indicate the name of the candidate, but with an indication of whether it is from the South or the North (‘S’ or ‘N’); the other with a cover page which should include student’s name, address, email, programme, institutional affiliation and also region (the South or the North (S or N).
Panel of judges for the second round:
The IDEA President in consultation with the Executive Board has appointed a panel of experienced development ethicists to assess the essays: Nigel Dower, BA, MA, PhD, TDhc, FRSA, Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Aberdeen, former President of IDEA; Workineh Kelbessa, BA, MA, PhD, Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Addis Ababa University; Lori Keleher, BA, MA, PhD, Assistant Professor, Dept of Philosophy, New Mexico State University.