Officers, Board & Bylaws

Details for recently elected 2018-forward Board are forthcoming … the 2014-18 Officers and Board are below.

 

IDEA Officers and Board 2014-18


SKH

Sirkku Hellsten (University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania & University of Helsinki, Finland)

–Sirkku passed away February 7, 2018; our condolences to her husband, Blue and to all her friends about the globe —

Sirkku Hellsten was Senior Researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden. Prior to this she was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. She also has a permanent affiliation with the University of Helsinki as a Docent of Social and Moral Philosophy. 2003-2007 she hold a position of Reader in Development Ethics, as well as Director of Centre for the Study of Global Ethics, University of Birmingham, UK. Before that she was Fulbright Scholar at the Ethics Center, the University of South Florida (1997-1998). In addition to her academic career professor Hellsten has worked as Counsellor for Economics, Governance and Human Rights at the Embassies of Finland in Maputo, Mozambique and Nairobi, Kenya. She has published extensively on the issues related to development ethics and global ethics, social justice, human rights, governance, and African political economy. She is also the founding Editor and co-Lead Editor of Journal of Global Ethics.

 

Officers

President: Eric Palmer

Allegheny College, USA

Eric Palmer is Professor of Philosophy at Allegheny College. His recent research in development ethics concerns multinational corporate responsibility in developing nations, particularly in cases of resource extraction.  He also focuses upon vulnerability and finance, inquiring into for-profit credit schemes directed at the poor in less developed nations (through microfinance and electronic cash) and more developed nations (through credit cards and payday lending). He argues that corporate responsibility in each of these areas of business, when viewed through the lens of the capability approach to development, implies specific duties for multinational corporations and finance capital. He has been co-director of a series of U.S.A. National Endowment for the Humanities Institutes focused upon development ethics. He is co-editor of Journal of Global Ethics and President of the International Development Ethics Association.
Personal website: http://sites.allegheny.edu/philo/faculty/eric-palmer/


Vice-President: Alejandra Boni

Universitat Politècnica de València, España

Alejandra Boni has a PhD in Human Rights and Democracy from the U. of Valencia; Associate Professor in the Departamento de Proyectos de Ingeniería (Dpt. of Projects Engineering) at the U. Politécnica de Valencia and research fellow in INGENIO Institute. Director of the Máster Interuniversitario en Cooperación al Desarrollo de la UPV (Master in International Cooperation) and Convenor of the PhD Programme in Local Development and International Cooperation.

Visitor researcher in several institutions: Institute of Development Studies in Sussex (2007), Institute of Social Studies in The Hague (2009), Research Centre for Leadership in Action,New York University (2011), Instituto Pensar, U. Javieriana de Bogota (2011 and 2013) and  Free State University in South Africa (2013 and 2014). Special Lecture Nottingham University (2008-2012).

Main research interests are in the area of human development, university, development education, international cooperation, project planning, grassroots social innovation and action research.

Main recent publications: Boni, A. and Walker, M. (Eds) (2013) Universities and Human Development. A New Imaginary for the University of the XXI Century, London: Routledge.

Updated information at http://www.ingenio.upv.es/en/user_profile/802


Mario Solís Umaña

Treasurer: Mario Solís Umaña

Universidad de Costa Rica

Mario Solís is is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Costa Rica (UCR). He received his PhD from the University of Essex, United Kingdom. He has been a visiting researcher at Uppsala University, Sweden (2014-2015) and a Visiting Research Associate at UCL, London (2015-2016). He currently teaches moral and political philosophy at the School of Philosophy, UCR, and is director of the Graduate Program in Philosophy, UCR.  Dr. Solis’s academic interests focus on Global Justice, Human Rights, Normativity and Critical Theory in the Americas. He has recently published a book entitled Justicia Situacional: Racionalidad, Normatividad y Teoría Crítica Latinoamericanista (Situational Justice: Rationality, Normativity and Latin American Critical Theory), Editorial UCR, 2016.  He is also a member of the Research Committee of INIF (Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, UCR) and a member of ALFAn (Asociación Latinoamericana de Filosofía Analítica).


Anna Malavisi

Secretary:  Anna Malavisi

Western Connecticut State University, USA

Anna Malavisi is Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy & Humanistic Studies at Western Connecticut State University. She has a PhD in philosophy from Michigan State University. Her dissertation, Global development and its discontents: rethinking the theory and practice, is a critical analysis of global development from an ethical and feminist epistemology perspective. Her philosophical interests include: practical and global ethics, feminist philosophy/epistemology, social and political thought, environmental philosophy and the philosophy of violence. She has a Master of Health and International Development and has worked for 16 years in Latin America in the NGO sector in areas of development practice and management. Personal website: https://annamalavisi.com


Executive Board

jeromeballet

Jérôme Ballet (Université de Bordeaux, France)

Jérôme Ballet is Assistant Professor in economics at the University of Bordeaux, France. He was researcher at UMI Resiliences, France and Madagascar, where he led a research program on household’s strategies facing poverty (2009-2013). He was senior lecturer at University of Versailles (1995-2008). He collaborates with several research units in Africa (in particular Côte d’Ivoire, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Mauritania). He is editor of the journal Ethics and economics (http://ethique-economique.net).


Brock

Gillian Brock (University of Auckland, New Zealand)

Gillian Brock is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. Her most recent work has been on global justice and related fields.   She has many interdisciplinary interests and holds editorial positions with several  journals, such as being Associate Editor for the journal, Politics, Philosophy and Economics.  Some of her current research interests lie at the intersection of Philosophy and Public Policy.  During 2013-2014 she took up a fellowship from the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University to research institutional corruption. Her books include: Debating Brain Drain (OUP, 2015), Cosmopolitanism versus Non-Cosmopolitanism (OUP, 2013), Global Heath and Global Health Ethics (CUP, 2011), Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account (OUP, 2009), Necessary Goods: Our Responsibilities to Meet Others’ Needs (1998), and Current Debates in Global Justice (2005).  Brock received her Ph.D. from Duke University.


jamescrombie

James Crombie (Université Sainte Anne, Canada)

James Crombie teaches globalization ethics, biomedical ethics, business ethics, philosophy of science and philosophy of education at l’Université Sainte-Anne, a small francophone university in Nova Scotia, Canada. James has published on the epistemologies of Thomas Reid, Charles Peirce, Gaston Bachelard and Paulo Freire, on Lewis Mumford’s theory of technology, on the unethical marketing of breast-milk substitutes in developing countries and on the transformation of the sense of identity among linguistic minorities with the advent of satellite tv and the Internet. James is also an accredited conference interpreter and has volunteered at the World Social Forum. He is currently working on the effect of the TRIPS intellectual property regime on access to health care and allocation of medical research resources. Web: http://personnel.usainteanne.ca/jcrombie


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Steve Esquith (Michigan State University)

Stephen L. Esquith has been working on ethical problems in developing countries since 1990 when he was a senior Fulbright scholar in Poland. His research and teaching since that time has focused on democratic transitions in post-conflict situations. He is the author of Intimacy and Spectacle (Cornell, 1994), a critique of classical and modern liberal political philosophy, and The Political Responsibilities of Everyday Bystanders (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010) on mass violence and democratic political education. He spent the academic year 2005-06 teaching and working with colleagues at the University of Bamako, Mali as a senior Fulbright scholar.  In  2006 he became Dean of the new Residential College in the Arts and Humanities. He  is currently working with colleagues in Mali on several related projects on post-conflict dialogue and reconciliation, including a new study abroad program on this topic in Mali beginning in summer 2014.


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Fred Gifford (Michigan State University)

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David Hoekema (Calvin College, USA)

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Lori

Lori Keleher (New Mexico State University, USA)

Lori Keleher, PhD. (Philosophy) is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, New Mexico (USA). She did a dissertation on Empowerment in International Development under the supervision of David Crocker (2007).  She has several published papers in development ethics, ancient philosophy and practical ethics.  With Jay Drydyk she is the co-editor of the Routledge Handbook of Development Ethics (forthcoming).  With Stacy Kosko she is the co-editor of Agency, Democracy, and Participation in Global Development (forthcoming, Cambridge University Press). Her current research interests include concepts of human dignity, and integral human development. In addition to her academic experience, Lori worked for Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI) in Washington, DC (2001 – 2003).


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Gürcan Koçan (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)

Gürcan Koçan is a Political Philosophy Professor at Istanbul Technical University in Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. He completed his Ph.D. in Political Science at Bilkent University in 2003. He obtained his M.A. in Political Science from the University of Alberta. His academic interests include political theory and thought, moral philosophy and citizenship theory. In addition to his books and book chapters, Koçan’s academic articles appeared in New Perspectives on Turkey, Journal of Historical Sociology, Science and Society, Citizenship Studies, and Norwegian Journal of Migration Research.  His recent works, the book chapter, written with Professor Ahmet Öncü, “Pragmatic Ethics of Environmentalist Movements of Turkey” (in Environmental Movements around the World: Shades of Green in Politics and Culture, edited by Timothy Doyle and Sherilyn MacGregor, Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2013), introduces a taxonomy of ethical responses to the environment, arguing that Turkey’s environmental ethics are of a pragmatic, consequentialist type.


Koggel-small

Christine Koggel (Carleton University, Canada)

Christine M. Koggel is Professor of Philosophy at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada and Harvey Wexler Chair in Philosophy, Bryn Mawr College, USA. Her book, Perspectives on Equality: Constructing a Relational Theory, shapes the foundation for her research interests in the areas of moral theory, practical ethics, social and political theory, and feminism. She is the editor of Moral Issues in Global Perspective; co-editor of Contemporary Moral Issues and Care Ethics: New Theories and Applications; and author of numerous journal articles and chapters in edited collections. Her current research in development ethics explores concepts and issues relevant to a global context.


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Stacy Kosko (University of Maryland, USA)

Dr. Stacy J. Kosko is Associate Director of the Minor in International Development and Conflict Management (MIDCM) and an Assistant Research Professor in the Center for International Development and Conflict Management in the Department of Government and Politics, as well as a Distinguished Fellow with the Academy for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Dr. Kosko completed her PhD under David A. Crocker at the University of Maryland School of Public Policy, concentrating in international development. During her time in that program, she also served as the Associate Director of the College Park Scholars Public Leadership program. Previously, she was the Deputy Director of The Advocacy Project, a Washington D.C.-based human rights organization. In addition, her educational background includes an MS in Foreign Service and international conflict management from Georgetown University, with a certificate in Refugee and Humanitarian Emergencies, and a BA in English and French and BS in Film from Syracuse University. She has consulted for the World Bank and several Roma human rights organizations in Central and Eastern Europe. Among her primary research interests are development ethics, human rights, and severely marginalized populations. In addition to serving on the Executive Board of the International Development Ethics Association since 2009, she is also a co-Coordinator of the Human Rights Thematic Group of the Human Development and Capability Association.


ndidi

Ndidi Nwaneri (Loyola University, USA)

Ndidi Nwaneri holds a B.Sc. Economics (1998) from Ahmadu Bello University in Nigeria, and an M.A. in Public Policy (2009) from The George Washington University in D.C. She is currently a 5th year Ph.D. student of Social and Political Philosophy at Loyola University Chicago. Her research interests include global justice, critical theory and phenomenology and feminist philosophy. Nwaneri has 10 years cumulative experience in community, economic and social development. Prior to embarking on graduate studies, she was a consultant with the UNDP Nigeria program on poverty, on secondment as Policy Assistant to the Minister of Education in Nigeria. She is currently working on her dissertation, which is an analysis of global justice theories with ideas from the critical theory tradition.


schwenke

Chloe Schwenke (Freedom House, USA)

Dr. Chloe Schwenke is Director of the Global Program on Violence, Rights, and Inclusion at the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). In prior employment, she served as vice president at America’s oldest human rights organization, Freedom House, in Washington, D.C., following service as a political appointee for the Obama Administration at the US Agency for International Development (USAID) as the Africa Bureau’s Senior Advisor on Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance. Chloe is a human rights activist, development practitioner, and academic with over three decades of international experience, nearly half of it while living in developing countries. She received her Ph.D. in ethics and public policy at the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland at College Park, where she was chosen as Alumnus of the Year for 2013. Her many publications include the book Reclaiming Value in International Development: The Moral Dimensions of Development Policy and Practice in Poor Countries (Praeger 2008). She’s been active with IDEA since 1998.


washburn

Jimmy Washburn (Universidad de Costa Rica)

Jimmy J. Washburn, is  Professor at the University of Costa Rica. He has a Master of Philosophy from the University of Costa Rica and his work has focused on two main fields: Medieval Philosophy and Ethics. Most of his published articles have been about topics or authors related to these fields.  He has been working for the School of Philosophy and also for the UCR Atlantic Branch. He has been a member of the Ethics Committee of the Hospital México, and the Bioethics Committee of the Hospital Calderón Guardia. He has participated in Conferences and Seminars on Bioethics in Spain, Israel, Hungary and México.


Watene

Krushil Watene (University of Auckland, New Zealand)

Krushil Watene holds a PhD in Philosophy from the University of St Andrews. She is currently a Research Fellow at the James Henare Maori Research Centre, University of Auckland. Krushil’s research and teaching interests include contemporary moral and political philosophy, and development studies. She is particularly interested in and committed to indigenous peoples issues, to development issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and to development research and projects with and for Maori communities. Most recently, Krushil led an Action Research Project focusing on the effectiveness of health and social services offered by Ngati Whatua o Orakei. At present, Krushil is involved in a hapu-wide survey project that aims to capture the needs and aspirations (in the areas of culture, health, employment, education, housing, whanau) of Ngati Whatua o Orakei people. The survey has been sent to more than 2000 descendants around the world.


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Carlos Zorro Sánchez (Universidad de los Andes, Colombia)

Carlos Zorro Sánchez is Associate Professor, University of los Andes, CIDER, Bogota, Colombia. He has a PhD in Social Sciences of Development from the University of Paris (EHESS); he has experience in social and economic development at national and local levels, as a practitioner as well as university professor. He has worked as a national and international consultant, as UNDP Chief Technical Advisor in Africa (Ivory Coast) and Central America (Nicaragua); as professor in Colombian universities and as guest fellow in French, Italian, Spanish, Brazilian and Ecuadorian universities. Main fields of study: Development Theory at global, national and local levels and Development Ethics; he has published numerous articles in national and international reviews.


Advisory Board

Des Gasper

Des Gasper studied economics and international development at the universities of Cambridge and East Anglia in Britain, and worked through the 1980s in Southern Africa. He teaches public policy analysis, governance and discourse analysis at the International Institute of Social Studies in The Hague, a graduate institute of Erasmus University Rotterdam, as professor of human development, development ethics and public policy. His publications include The Ethics of Development (Edinburgh University Press, 2004; Sage India, 2005), and Development Ethics (co-editor, A.L. St. Clair; Ashgate, 2010). In recent years much of his research has been on international migration and on the ethics of climate change, using a human security framework and looking at the value-choices, explicit and hidden, that guide research studies, policy analyses and practices in these areas.


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Jean-Luc Dubois holds a doctorate in economics from the University of Versailles St Quentin-en-Yvelines (UVSQ). He joined the French Institute of Research for Development (IRD) in the late 1993 and co-directs since 2010, the International Research Unit (IRU) ‘Resilience’, which is a joint venture between IRD and CIRES (Ivorian Center for Economic and Social Research) with some fifty researchers from the North and the South. He is in charge of the course ‘Socially sustainable development and North-South relations’ (2007-2013) for the Master on ‘Solidarity economy and market logics’ at the Catholic University of Paris. His main research topics are development economics, investigation methodology, households’ living conditions and poverty analysis, social sustainability and equity. Current projects focus on the link between vulnerability and resilience and on the relationship between human development and the ethics of solidarity economy. He contributed to the book Freedom, Responsibility and Economics of the Person.


Past Presidents

Denis Goulet

Denis Goulet (1931-2006)


davidcrocker2

David Crocker is Senior Research Scholar at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy at the University of Maryland. Coming to UMD in 1993, he specializes in international development ethics, sociopolitical philosophy, transitional justice, democracy, and democratization. Offering graduate courses in ethics, development, foreign aid, democracy, and human rights, Dr. Crocker helped establish and directs the School’s specialization in International Development, the School’s largest and fastest growing program. He also directs doctoral dissertations on ethics and global issues.  In 1998, he started the Development Circle, a bi-weekly speaker-forum that addresses ethical issues in international development. He directed the first three study-abroad trips to Morocco, where School graduate students and Public Leadership undergraduates studied “Culture and Human Rights – A Public Leadership Perspective.”  In 2010, he led the first School study trip to Peru to study “Development, Democracy, and Human Rights in Peru.”


NigelDower
Nigel Dower is Honorary Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Aberdeen. He joined IDEA in 1987, became Vice-President in 1995 and President in 2002. His research interests are focused on the ethics of development, environment, international relations, and related issues. His publications include World Poverty – Challenge and Response (Sessions 1983), World Ethics: The New Agenda (EUP 1998; 2nd edition 2007); and An Introduction to Global Citizenship (EUP 2003); Ethics of War and Peace (Polity 2009).


Jaydrydyk
Jay Drydyk is interested in how human rights, justice, democracy, and worthwhile development can be understood from global and cross-cultural perspectives. His analysis of empowerment and other values of development ethics resulted from two projects on development-induced displacement, in which he worked with colleagues in India to study ethical risks that arise when development displaces people and their communities. The results were published in Displacement by Development: Ethics, Rights and Responsibilities (Cambridge University Press, 2011), co-authored with Peter Penz and Pablo S. Bose. One of his current projects asks whether and how global ethics is possible, given the fact of moral pluralism within and among societies. In addition, he is attempting to develop a conception of justice as a virtue of social actors – individual, institutional, and collective – based on the capability approach. He is Professor of Philosophy at Carleton University and a Fellow of the Human Development and Capability Association.


Asuncion St.Clair
Asuncion Lera St. Clair, philosopher and sociologist, is Senior Principal Scientist in the Climate change Program of DNV GL Strategic Research & innovation, Norway. She was Research Director for Climate and Development at the International Centre for Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO) and Associated Senior Researcher at the Chr. Michelsens Institute and former professor of sociology at the University of Bergen. St. Clair is also Lead Author of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and co-author chapter 1 (“Point of Departure”) of the Working Group II Report on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability and member of the editorial boards of various international journals. Her research interests are focused on ethical issues related to poverty and development, with a focus on the key challenges posed by climate change.

 

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ETHICS ASSOCIATION

 BYLAWS (as adopted June 21, 1992 and amended 21 July, 2006)

 

Article I: Name

 

The name of this organization shall be the INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ETHICS ASSOCIATION (hereafter, IDEA).

 

Article II: Purpose

 

The purpose of IDEA is to promote the understanding of ethical issues arising in connection with international development and social change, and to facilitate an international cross-disciplinary dialogue concerning alternative development models, policies, and practices. As part of this purpose IDEA encourages and promotes teaching, research and practice in development ethics.

 

Article III: Membership

 

  1. The membership of IDEA for any given year is open to anyone who subscribes to the purposes of the organization and whose application for membership has been accepted. Those applying from richer countries and professionals from poorer countries are expected to pay membership dues; whilst those who are not in a position to pay dues may become ‘contributing’ members with all the same rights as dues-paying members.

 

  1. The annual dues and their structure shall be determined by a simple majority vote of the Executive Board.

 

  1. Payment of annual dues or confirmation of contributing membership will convey the privileges of (a) attending all meetings of IDEA upon payment of meeting registration fees, and (b) voting on all issues set for vote by the general membership at business meetings of IDEA.

 

Article IV: Officers of IDEA

 

  1. The officers of IDEA shall be selected from among members of the organization, with the selection process being initiated at the first international meeting held after the Bylaws have been adopted. Subsequent elections will occur concurrent with every international meeting.

 

  1. The existing Executive Board, seated for any given year in which an election is to take place, shall develop a slate of nominees to be presented at the meeting at which the election is to take place. Offices will include: President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, and in addition there will be eight elected Members-At-Large of the Executive Board. In addition, eight Members-At-Large of the Executive Board will be appointed by the incoming President with majority approval by the elected incoming Members-At-Large and the then elected Officers. The latter eight appointments will be made subsequent to, but within six weeks of, the election of officers. All officers elected to the Executive Board Members-At-Large, whether elected or appointed, shall serve for the period beginning with their election and closing with the subsequent election. If a vacancy on the Executive Board occurs, the vacancy will be filled by presidential appointment for the remaining portion of the term.

 

  1. A person will normally hold the presidency for one or two terms (a term being the period between two international meetings, open to and advertised to all IDEA members), and normally for not longer than five years, and would only be eligible for re-election beyond that period in the absence of another suitable candidate. The person who takes up the Vice-Presidency should normally do so in the expectation that he or she will be available to take on the presidency in the subsequent term. This does not preclude either the possibility of the Vice-President not being able subsequently to take on that role or the possibility that another candidate could be proposed.

 

  1. The Executive Board shall have the power to create other offices which may be filled either by members of the Executive Board or by other IDEA members.

 

  1. In the event that the Presidency should become vacant (e.g. by resignation, change of bylaws, or demise) the office will be filled by the remaining members of the Executive Board in order of precedence, which is: (1) President, (2) Vice President, (3) Secretary, (4) Treasurer, (5) elected Executive Board Members, and (6) appointed Executive Board Members, with the order of precedence being determined within the latter two categories by length of membership in IDEA, with the greatest length conveying the highest rank, the next greatest length the next highest rank, etc.

 

  1. The President of IDEA will assume the responsibility of arranging at least one meeting every four years open to all members of IDEA.

 

Article V:

 

The President shall have an Advisory Council made up of former Presidents who consent to this and such distinguished international persons whom The President wishes to appoint. The President shall appoint this advisory Council upon consultation with the Executive Board. Whilst the President is not required to keep the distinguished international persons whom his or her predecessor(s) appointed, the expectation will be that at least most of them will be retained for the sake of continuity and continued international recognition.

 

Article VI: Diversity of Representation

 

  1. In keeping with the intellectually inclusive character of IDEA, officers of the Executive Board will strive to nominate for each slate of nominations, persons for the Executive Board who belong to clearly diverse educational, institutional, national, ethnic and gender categories. Where this ideal is not realized in the slate of nominations presented at the electoral meeting, the President will endeavor to provide balance by means of appointments.

 

  1. Chairs of all sessions of meetings held under the auspices of IDEA and IDEA itself will endeavor to invite inclusive primary discussion by recognizing members from differing national, ethnic, and gender categories.

 

  1. The President shall make a reasonable effort to insure that at least three women shall serve on each successive Executive Board.

 

Article VII: Ratification and Changes of IDEA Bylaws

 

  1. These bylaws, whether in their original form offered for ratification or modified at subsequent times, shall be deemed effective when approved (1) by a simple majority vote of Executive Board members present and voting at a duly announced meeting of the Executive Board and (2) by a 2/3 vote of IDEA members at a general meeting. (N.b. the original bylaws were approved by 2/3 vote at a duly announced business meeting of IDEA for the ratification of the bylaws on 21st June, 1992.)

 

  1. Changes in IDEA bylaws may be proposed by members of the Executive Board. Any such proposed changes must be made public to the IDEA membership through the IDEA website and email with sufficient time for comments and suggestions to be made before the meeting at which a vote is taken.

 

  1. Changes in IDEA bylaws also may be proposed by members of IDEA who are not members of the Executive Board by providing the Executive Board with a written copy of the proposed changes accompanied by a petition endorsing the proposed changes signed by at least 5 members of IDEA. Any such proposed changes must be made public to the IDEA membership through the IDEA website and email with sufficient time for comments and suggestions to be made before the meeting at which a vote is taken.

 

Article VIII: Dissolution of the Organization

 

In the event of the dissolution of the Association, its officers shall, after paying all the liabilities of IDEA, distribute all remaining assets to promote activities that are exclusively charitable and educational in nature.

 

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